美国司法部任命的独立顾问具有多大的独立性?

Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein gave his reason for naming a special counsel to investigate Russian interference in the 2016 election: trust.
美国司法部副部长罗德·罗森斯坦(Rod Rosenstein)解释了任命一名特别顾问(special counsel)来调查俄罗斯干涉2016年美国大选的原因,那就是信任。

Rosenstein said it is important Americans "have full confidence" in the "outcome" of the Russia investigation.
罗森斯坦表示,重要的是美国人充分信任对俄罗斯调查的结果。

For that to happen, Rosenstein said, he needed to name a person "who exercises a degree of independence from the normal chain of command."
罗森斯坦表示,为了实现这点,他需要任命“一定程度上独立于正常指挥链之外”的人选。

That person is Robert Mueller, a former federal prosecutor and FBI director. His selection Wednesday was praised by both Democrats and Republicans.
这个人选就是前联邦检察官和联邦调查局局长罗伯特·穆勒(Robert Mueller)。罗森斯坦的选择同时受到了民主党和共和党人的赞扬。

Rosenstein's order says Mueller can investigate Russia's efforts to interfere with the presidential election, possible connections between Russia and Trump campaign officials and any other matters that "arise directly from the investigation."
罗森斯坦下达的命令称,穆勒可以调查俄罗斯试图干涉美国总统大选、俄罗斯和川普竞选官员之间可能存在的联系以及由这次调查直接引起的任何问题。

Mueller will have more independence than the 94 U.S. attorneys who normally oversee criminal investigations.
穆勒将比通常负责监督刑事调查的94名美国检察官具有更大的独立性。

But he won’t have complete independence.
但是他不具备完全的独立性。

Mueller, unlike other federal prosecutors, will not be subject to day-to-day supervision by the attorney general and other Justice Department officials. But the deputy attorney general can overrule his "prosecutorial or investigative decisions."
穆勒跟其他联邦检察官不同,他不受司法部长和其它司法部官员的日常监督。但是司法部副部长可以驳回他的“起诉或调查决定。”

Rosenstein, the deputy attorney general, is overseeing the Russian investigation because Attorney General Jeff Sessions removed himself. Sessions withdrew because he worked on the Trump campaign and met with Russian officials.
司法部副部长罗森斯坦负责监督俄罗斯调查,因为司法部长杰夫·塞辛斯(Jeff Sessions)采取了回避。赛辛斯回避是因为他参与了川普竞选活动并会见了俄罗斯官员。

Mueller's appointment came after some unexpected developments in the Russia investigation.
穆勒的任命是在俄罗斯调查发生一些意想不到的事情之后。

Last week, President Donald Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, who was overseeing the FBI's collection of evidence.
上周,川普总统解雇了负责监督联邦调查局证据收集工作的联邦调查局局长詹姆斯·科米(James Comey)。

The dismissal was followed by reports claiming that Trump had asked Comey to drop an investigation of his former national security adviser, Michael Flynn. Another report said Trump had asked Comey if he would be "loyal" to him.
科米被解雇之后,有报道称川普曾经要求科米放弃对他的前国家安全顾问迈克尔·弗林(Michael Flynn)的调查。还有报道称川普曾经问科米是否会对他“忠诚”。

The White House denied both claims but some Democrats say Trump should be investigated for obstruction of justice.
白宫否认了这两项声明,但是一些民主党人认为,川普应该接受妨碍司法的调查。

John Barrett is a law professor at St. John's University in New York. Barrett had earlier worked for a special federal prosecutor. He said obstruction of justice is a complex law.
约翰·巴雷特(John Barrett)是纽约圣约翰大学的法律教授。巴雷特早前曾经担任过特别联邦检察官。他说,妨碍司法是一项复杂的法律。

Among other things, it makes it a crime to obstruct, influence or impede any official proceeding for corrupt reasons.
其中,因为腐败原因而妨碍、干涉或阻止任何正式诉讼是一项犯罪行为。

Barrett said Trump's actions should be investigated. It will depend on whether Comey and others saw Trump's comments as threats, Barrett said.
巴雷特表示,川普的行为应该接受调查。它取决于科米和其他人是否视川普的言论为威胁。

Other important investigations in U.S. history
美国历史上其它重要调查

Special counsels have only been named twice. The last time was in 2003 when prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald investigated who leaked the identity of a CIA officer, Valerie Plame.
美国只任命过两次特别顾问。上一次是2003年检察官帕特里克·菲茨杰拉德(Patrick Fitzgerald)调查是谁泄露了中央情报局官员瓦莱丽·普莱姆(Valerie Plame)的身份。

“Watergate” is the best known case involving a special prosecutor. Archibald Cox was appointed to investigate whether President Richard Nixon had obstructed justice. The case centered on whether Nixon covered up his administration’s involvement in the 1973 break-in at Democratic headquarters in the Watergate building. Nixon resigned from office in 1974 -- as Congress was ready to begin proceedings to remove him from office.
水门事件是涉及特别检察官(special prosecutor)最为著名的案件。阿奇博尔德·考克斯(Archibald Cox)被任命调查尼克松总统是否曾经妨碍司法公正。这起案件聚焦于尼克松是否掩盖了他的政府1973年闯入民主党总部水门大厦。1974年尼克松辞职,因为国会已经准备好弹劾他。

Another well-known case was the investigation of President Bill Clinton by Kenneth Starr. It started out as an investigation into a real estate deal known as Whitewater. But it led to Starr reporting that Clinton had covered up an affair with a White House intern.
另一起众所周知的案件是肯尼思·斯塔尔(Kenneth Starr)调查克林顿总统。这起案件始于一项针对被称之为白水的房地产交易的调查。但是它导致了斯塔尔报告称,克林顿掩盖了跟一位白宫实习生的风流韵事。

Special prosecutors had more independence than a special counsel, the job Mueller now has. But the law establishing the prosecutor position ended in 1999.
特别检察官比穆勒现在担任的特别顾问具有更大的独立性。但是确立该检察官职位的法律已于1999年失效。

The Mueller investigation probably will not be finished quickly. The Washington Post reported that, on average, previous investigations by special counsels or prosecutors took a little over three years.
穆勒的调查可能不会很快完成。《华盛顿邮报》报道称,特别顾问或特别检察官以前的调查工作平均花费了三年多时间。

Ari Fleischer, the press secretary during the George W. Bush administration, tweeted Thursday that Mueller will not take any more time than needed.
小布什当政期间的新闻秘书阿里·弗莱舍(Ari Fleischer)周四发推表示,穆勒不会浪费任何时间。

"Starr was 48 when named special prosecutor," he tweeted. "Fitzgerald was 43 when named special counsel. Mueller is 72. He won't want this to take years."
他说,“斯塔尔被任命为特别检察官时是48岁,菲茨杰拉德被任命为特别顾问时是43岁。穆勒已经72岁了,他不想要这次调查花那么多年时间。”

I'm Bruce Alpert.
我是布鲁斯·阿尔伯特。

And I'm Anne Ball.
我是安妮·波尔。(51VOA.COM对本文翻译保留全部权利,未经授权请勿转载,违者必究!)