伊拉克电台帮助击败伊斯兰国

The battle to free the Iraqi city of Mosul from the Islamic State (IS) group lasted nine months.
把伊拉克城市摩苏尔从伊斯兰国手中解放出来的战斗持续了九个月。

The military operation involved hundreds of airstrikes and a difficult Iraqi-led ground offensive. Victory was finally declared last July as IS fighters were forced from the city.
这次军事行动包括了数百次空袭和伊拉克领导的艰难的地面攻势。随着伊斯兰国战士被迫逃离这座城市,战争终于在去年七月宣告胜利。

A new report suggests that one reason for the operation's success was a campaign of information warfare by resistance forces. It says the campaign took on IS propagandists and destroyed the group's image of invincibility.
一份新报告表明,该行动取得成功的原因之一是抵抗力量进行的信息战运动。报告称,这场运动与伊斯兰国的宣传员展开了较量,摧毁了该组织的无敌形象。

Mike Stevens wrote the report, which was published by Britain's Royal United Services Institute.
麦克·斯蒂文斯(Mike Stevens)撰写了这份报告,并由英国皇家联合服务研究所发表。

Stevens is a former British army officer. He says the occupation by IS forces had a major effect on the citizens of Mosul. He noted that many people felt like they were being held hostage.
斯蒂文斯是前英国军官。他说,伊斯兰国部队的占领对摩苏尔市民产生了重大影响。他指出,很多人感觉自己被扣为人质。

Stevens says one of the greatest tools for ending that fear was a radio station set up by two refugees, who had fled to the city of Irbil, some 80 kilometers east of Mosul.
斯蒂文斯表示,消除这种恐惧最强大的工具是由两名难民建立的一家电台。他们逃到了摩苏尔以东八十公里的埃尔比勒市。

Using a single radio transmitter, they set up Radio al-Ghad and began broadcasts for their home city.
他们利用一台无线电发射机设立了明日电台(Radio al-Ghad),开始广播他们的家乡城市。

To break Islamic State's oppressive presence, the station combined telephone call-in programs and debate with music and talent competitions. Such events were barred during the IS occupation.
为了打破伊斯兰国的压迫感,该电台将热线电话和辩论节目同音乐和才艺比赛结合起来。在伊斯兰国占领期间,这类活动被禁止。

The radio station differed from other stations because it had talent shows, which "come out of pain," noted Mourad Khan in 2017. He served as a radio host.
穆哈德·卡恩(Mourad Khan)在2017年指出,该电台与其它电台有所不同,因为它有“从痛苦中涅槃而出的”才艺表演。卡恩担任了电台主持人。

Radio al-Ghad also offered ground intelligence to coalition forces, and even debated with IS commanders in its programs.
明日电台还向联军提供了地面情报,甚至在节目中同伊斯兰国指挥官进行了辩论。

"What they did was give people space to speak. And give people space to debate, like a community radio station," the report said.
报告称,“他们所做的就是给人们提供说话和辩论的空间,就像社区广播电台一样。”

The station fought with IS for control of the airwaves, which led to "them actually being in a dominant position," Stevens said.
斯蒂文斯表示,该电台在电波控制上同伊斯兰国展开了较量,这导致他们实际上处于主导地位。

Resistance groups throughout Mosul united under a common sign: the Arabic letter "M" for "Muqawama," or resistance, which began to appear on streets across the city.
摩苏尔各地的抵抗组织在阿拉伯语M这个共同的标志下联合起来,它代表Muqawama,也就是抵抗的意思。这个标志开始在全市街道上出现。

After listening to the radio station, many people were moved to personal acts of civil disobedience, such as a graffiti campaign. Iraqis began marking up and writing messages on the walls of the city. Stevens says acts like these offered hope to the people of Mosul.
在收听这家广播电台之后,很多人开始转向温和抵抗的个人行为,例如涂鸦运动。伊拉克人开始在城市的墙壁上涂写信息。史蒂文斯表示,这些行为给摩苏尔人民带来了希望。

The battle on the radio for Mosul's population offers examples for other conflict areas.
摩苏尔人民的电台争取战为其它冲突地区提供了模板。

"We're at risk of becoming not very good at doing this at all because we're losing a connection with local people," Stevens noted. He also said that fighting war from a distance, with the help of computers, has added to the problem.
斯蒂文斯表示:“我们面临着变得完全不擅长这么做的风险,因为我们脱离了当地人。”他还表示,在计算机协助下的远程战争加剧了这个问题。

The report says that repeating the success of Mosul's non-violent resistance would only be possible with long-term deployment of ground troops and the freedom to talk directly with local people.
报告称,只有长期部署地面部队并拥有与当地人直接对话的自由,才有可能重演摩苏尔非暴力抵抗运动的成功。

I'm Susan Shand.
我是苏珊·珊德。(51VOA.COM原创翻译,禁止转载,违者必究!)