研究称美国移民政策将会损害密歇根州经济

Around the year 2000, a Bangladeshi immigrant named Shaker Sadeak left New York City.
2000年左右,一位名为Shaker Sadeak的孟加拉国移民离开了纽约市。

Sadeak moved west to the American state of Michigan. He told VOA that Michigan gave him the chance to hold a job while going to school.
Sadeak西迁到了密西根州。他对美国之音表示,密歇根州给了他一边上学一边打工的机会。

In 2007, he opened his own retail store in Hamtramck, Michigan -- a town with many immigrants from Bangladesh. The store, specializing in cloth, is next to Bengali restaurants and food stores. His business has grown over the years.
2007年,他在密歇根州有着诸多孟加拉国移民的Hamtramck镇开设了自己的零售店。这家专营布匹的小店毗邻孟加拉餐厅和食品店。他的生意多年来一直在增长。

This past summer, new and established stores were replacing empty spaces along Conant Street, the main commercial street in Hamtramck.
在过去的这个夏天,新开业的店铺开始取代Conant街沿线的空置房屋,这条街道是Hamtramck镇主要的商业街。

Sadeak told VOA "Back in 2000, you used to see one car in two minutes. Now we have thousands of cars driving on the streets. All the immigrants came into this town and rebuilt the whole thing," he said.
Sadeak对美国之音表示:“回想2000年,常常两分钟才能看到一辆车。而现在街上行驶着上千辆车。移民们来到这个小镇,重建了一切。”

In old industrial areas across the United States, immigration is the basis for economic growth, says Steve Tobocman, Executive Director of Global Detroit. His nonprofit group works to bring international investment and business to southeast Michigan.
Global Detroit组织执行董事长斯蒂夫·托博曼(Steve Tobocman)表示,在美国各地的老工业区,移民是经济增长的基础。这家非营利组织致力于将国际投资和业务带到密歇根州东南部。

Tobocman told VOA that the immigration issues are real and important to the community.
托博曼对美国之音表示,移民问题对社区来说是真实存在也是非常重要的。

"They have a real impact on family budgets, and jobs, and incomes," he said.
他说:“移民问题对家庭预算、就业和收入有着实际影响。”

Damage to America's brand
损害美国形象

New research shows that after the 2008 Great Recession, a growth in Detroit's immigrant population helped to fight population decline and energize the economy. Global Detroit reported the findings.
新的研究表明,在208年大衰退之后,底特律移民人口的增长有对于对抗人口减少和振兴经济。Global Detroit组织报告了这一调查结果。

Tobocman said that since the beginning of Donald Trump's presidency, anti-immigrant language and policies have been costly for Michigan.
托博曼表示,自从川普担任总统以来,反移民言论和政策让密歇根付出了昂贵代价。

"We have done some damage to America's brand as the world's most welcoming economy, most innovative economy, and a place where anybody can come and contribute to our growth and prosperity and live the American Dream," he said.
他说:“我们给美国作为全球最友好、最具创新经济,以及人人皆可前来为我们的经济增长和繁荣做贡献并实现美国梦的这样一种形象抹了黑。”

Trump's top advisor for policy, Stephen Miller, told reporters in August that the president's policies will prevent an increase in low-wage labor and protect American workers.
川普高级政策顾问斯蒂芬·米勒(Stephen Miller)8月份对记者表示,川普总统的政策将会防止廉价劳动力增长并保护美国工人。

Miller believes that unskilled immigrants hurt the economy, and are partly to blame for unemployment in the country.
米勒认为,无技能移民伤害了经济,并对该国的失业问题负有部分责任。

The U.S. Labor Department reported in early September that the jobless rate was 4.4 percent.
美国劳工部9月初报告称失业率为4.4%。

Comparing Michigan with nine other industrial states, Global Detroit estimated the economic loss that resulted from decreases in international travel and international students. The study also considered effects from Trump's cancellation of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program and losses in agricultural production.
Global Detroit组织将密歇根州与其它九个工业州相比,估算出了国际旅游和国际学生减少所造成的损失。这项研究还考虑到了川普取消暂缓遣返童年抵达者计划(DACA)和农业生产损失的影响。

The group predicted a combined $1.157 billion in yearly losses in statewide economic activity. It estimated $418 million of that amount coming from the announced cancellation of DACA.
该组织预计全州范围的经济活动每年一共损失了11.57亿美元,其中4.18亿美元的损失源自于宣布取消暂缓遣返儿童抵达者计划。

About $261 million in losses were tied to an estimated 16 percent drop in foreign visitors to the United States.
还有大约2.61亿美元损失跟美国的外国游客减少16%有关。

Weighing costs and benefits
权衡代价和收益

In areas of the U.S. where population is falling, immigrants are "part of what is keeping those communities vibrant and growing," says Kim Rueben, a Senior Fellow at the Urban Institute.
城市研究所高级研究员金姆·鲁本(Kim Rueben)表示,在美国人口下降的地区,移民是“维持这些社区活力和增长的部分原因。”

Rueben was a member of the National Academy of Sciences panel that wrote a report on the effect of immigration on American workers and economic growth. The group reported its findings in 2016.
鲁本是撰写了关于移民对美国工人和经济增长影响报告的美国国家科学院专家组的一员。该组织于2016年发布了他们的研究结果。

Rueben noted that there are costs to state and local governments, such as educating the children of immigrants. But, she said, those same children become adults who "end up paying the most in taxes and using the least in services."
鲁本指出,州政府和地方政府都付出了代价,例如教育移民子女。但是她说,这些孩子成年后“最终承担了最高的税收并享受了最少的服务。”

Any decision to cut immigration numbers and the overturning of DACA will hurt the economy, Reuben said.
鲁本表示,任何削减移民人数和推翻暂缓遣返童年抵达者计划的决定都会伤害经济。

She noted that the children of lower-wage, first generation immigrants have shown an ability to exceed education level expectations.
她指出,低收入的第一代移民的子女已经显示出了超出教育程度期望的能力。

A recent opinion study found that 38 percent of voting Americans approve of President Trump's immigration policies, while 59 percent disapprove. The Quinnipiac University poll was released last month.
最近一项民意调查发现,38%参与投票的美国人赞成川普的移民政策,而59%的人表示反对。这项昆尼皮亚克大学的民调是在上月发布的。

I'm Bryan Lynn. And I'm Alice Bryant.
我是布莱恩·林恩,我是艾莉丝·布莱恩特。(51VOA.COM对本文翻译保留全部权利,未经授权请勿转载,违者必究!)