美国大规模袭击事件报告认为精神健康是主要因素

Two-thirds of all mass public attacks in the United States last year were carried out by someone with mental health problems. In more than one-third of the attacks, the attacker killed himself at the site of the attack or shortly after leaving.
美国去年发生的大规模袭击事件中,有2/3的事件是心理健康有问题的人所为。在超过1/3的袭击事件中,袭击者都当场或是离开袭击现场不久后自杀。

Those findings come from a new report from the country's National Threat Assessment Center (NTAC). The NTAC is part of the United States Secret Service.
这些调查结果出自美国国家威胁评估中心的一份新报告。该中心隶属于美国特勤局。

The researchers looked at 27 attacks in public spaces in which three or more people were injured or killed. The attacks took place in 18 states. Ninety-one people were killed in all. Another 107 people were wounded.
研究人员研究了27起在公众场合发生的、伤亡人数不少于3人的袭击事件。这些袭击事件发生在美国18个州,一共造成91人遇难,还有107人受伤。

Such attacks included the February 2018 high school shooting in Parkland, Florida, which left 17 people dead. The researchers also looked at the October 2018 shooting at the Tree of Life Jewish religious center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Eleven people died in that attack.
此类袭击事件包括了2018年2月佛罗里达州帕克兰一所高中发生的有17人遇难的枪击事件。研究人员还研究了2018年10月宾夕法尼亚州匹兹堡市生命之树犹太教堂发生的枪击案,那起事件造成11人遇难。

U.S. officials are searching for ways to decrease such violence.
美国官员正在寻找减少此类暴力事件的途径。

"We don't have a magic wand," said NTAC Chief Lina Alathari. "There's not a single solution to everything."
美国国家威胁评估中心的首席执行官莉娜·厄拉索瑞表示:“我们没有魔法杖,万事万物也没有统一的解决之道。”

What is behind an attack?
袭击事件的背后

The report was able to identify some broad themes in the attacks. For example, 89 percent of the attacks involved firearms and 70 percent happened at a place of business, such as a bank or office building.
该报告可以确定袭击事件中的一些共性。例如,89%的袭击事件涉及到枪支,70%的袭击事件发生在银行或办公楼之类的商业场所。

Twenty-five of the 27 attacks were carried out by males.
这27次袭击中,有25次是男性所为。

The youngest attacker was a 15-year-old high school student in Benton, Kentucky. He killed two classmates and injured 10 more. The oldest attacker was a 64-year-old man who walked into a restaurant in Hurtsboro, Alabama, where he reportedly shot and killed the owner and another person.
最年轻的袭击者是肯塔基州本顿一名15岁的高中生。他杀害了两名同学,还造成十多人受伤。最年老的袭击者是一名64岁的男子,他走进阿拉巴马州赫茨伯勒的一家餐馆,据报道他枪杀了餐馆老板和另外一人。

More than half of the incidents were connected to personal disputes at work or at home.
一半以上的袭击事件跟工作或家庭中的个人纠纷有关。

NTAC researchers blamed just two of the 27 attacks on ideology. The report says hatred of Jews was behind the deadly shooting at the Pittsburgh synagogue. And, it said a February 18 truck attack at a medical center in New Jersey was carried out because the attacker opposes the right of women to medically end their pregnancies.
美国国家威胁评估中心只把这27次袭击事件中的两起归咎于意识形态。该报告称,匹兹堡市犹太教堂致命枪击事件背后隐藏的是仇视犹太人。报告还称2月18日在新泽西州一家医疗中心发生的卡车袭击事件是因为袭击者反对妇女堕胎权。

Looking for warning signs
寻找预警迹象

The NTAC and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are urging communities to look for any signs that someone is at risk of becoming violent. The agencies are trying to educate the public about possible warning signs and what actions observers can take.
美国国家威胁评估中心和国土安全部督促社区寻找任何能表明某人可能会变暴力的迹象。这些机构正试图向公众宣传可能的预警迹象,以及旁观者可以采取什么样的行动。

NTAC's Alathari said, "We want to identify individuals early to deter them off that path."
美国国家威胁评估中心的厄拉索瑞表示:“我们希望尽早发现这种人,阻止他们走上邪路。”

The NTAC and DHS have been contacting state and local officials, as well as schools, businesses and mental health agencies to provide free training and advice. A large part of the goal is to make sure people feel at ease coming forward with information.
美国国家威胁评估中心和国土安全部一直在接触州和地方官员,以及学校、企业和精神卫生机构,以提供免费的培训和建议。主要目的就是确保人们可以放心地提供线索。

DHS acting Secretary Kevin McAleenan said people should trust their feelings. "Prevention of mass attacks is truly a community effort," he said.
美国国土安全部的代理部长凯文·麦卡利南表示,人们应该相信自己的直觉。他说:“预防大规模袭击事件确实需要社区群众的努力。”

Officials believe at least that part of the message is getting through. In more than 75 percent of the mass attacks in 2018, someone shared concerns about the attacker before the attack took place.
官员们认为,至少这部分信息会传开来。在2018年发生的75%以上的大规模袭击事件中,都有人在袭击发生前就对袭击者表示了担忧。

But, officials admit, this has not been enough.
但是官员们承认这还不够。

Alathari said, "If the community is sharing their concerns, then it's really incumbent on the person in authority to act on those concerns, whether it's law enforcement, a workplace manager, [or] a school administrator."
厄拉索瑞表示:“如果社区群众把他们的担忧说出来,那么执法人员、公司管理人员或是学校行政人员等当权者就都有责任采取行动解决这类担忧。”

But many believe that U.S. policies still fall short of a solution. Critics argue that officials are too centered on mental health.
但是很多人认为美国的政策仍然未有解决之道。批评者认为官员们过于关注精神健康。

"With all these incidents, there's a common denominator of firearms and easy access to guns and ammunition," said Colin Clarke, an expert at The Soufan Center.
苏凡中心(智库)的专家柯林·克拉克表示:“所有这些事件中都存在枪支这一共性,并且枪支弹药很容易获得。”

"We still can't predict human behavior," Clarke noted. "We can come up with all the great technologies in the world but if guns are still readily available this [more mass shootings] is going to be the result."
克拉克说:“我们仍然无法预测人类行为。我们可以提供世界上所有最伟大的技术,但是只要枪支仍然可以轻而易举地获得,大规模枪击事件就无法避免。”

I'm Ashley Thompson.
我是阿什利·汤普森。(51VOA.COM原创翻译,禁止转载,违者必究!)