词汇掌故:动物名称和动物肉类名称

Now, Words and Their Stories from VOA Learning English.
这里是美国之音慢速英语词汇掌故节目。

On this program we often talk about the origins of words and expressions that we use in American English. We also talk about how we use them in everyday conversations.
在本节目中我们经常会谈到美式英语中日常用语的起源。我们也会谈到它们在日常对话中的应用。

Today we talk about animals--and animals we eat. In English, these two categories often have different names. Pigs turn into pork. Cows turn into beef. Sheep is mutton. Calves are veal. And deer is venison.
今天我们讨论动物以及我们食用的动物(肉类)。在英语中,这两类通常有着不同的名称。pigs(猪)变成了pork(猪肉),cows(牛)变成了beef(牛肉),sheep(羊)变成了mutton(羊肉),calves(牛犊)变成了veal(牛犊肉),而deer(鹿)变成了venison(鹿肉)。

But why do we call these animals different names when we prepare them for a meal? Why is it "pig" on the farm but "pork" in a sandwich?
但是为什么当我们把动物做成食物时就叫做不同的名字呢?为什么它在农场里叫“pig(猪)”,到了三明治里面就成了“pork(猪肉)”呢?

The answer is the Norman Conquest of Britain in 1066. That is when many French words became part of the English language. Many of those French words related to the battlefield, such as "army" and "royal." Many related to government and taxation.
答案是1066年诺曼人征服英国,当时很多法语词汇进入了英语之中。这些法语词汇很多是跟战争有关,例如army(军队)和royal(皇室),很多跟政府和税收有关。

And many others related to food.
还有很多跟食物有关。

When animals were in the stable or on the farm, they kept their Old English names: pig, cow, sheep and calf. But when they were cooked and brought to the table, an English version of the French word was used: pork (porc), beef (beouf), mutton (mouton) and veal (veau).
当动物在畜舍或农场里面时,它们保留了旧英文名称:pig(猪)、cow(牛)、sheep(羊)和calf(牛犊)。但是当它们被做成食物端上餐桌时,就会使用英文版的法语单词:pork(猪肉,法语porc),beef(牛肉,法语beouf),mutton(羊肉,法语mouton)以及veal(牛犊肉,法语veau)。

On several websites, word experts claim that this change shows a class difference between the Anglo-Saxons and the French in Britain at the time of the conquest.
有些网站的词汇专家声称,这种变化展示了诺曼人征服英国时,本土的盎格鲁撒克逊人和法国征服者之间的阶级差异。

Because the lower-class Anglo-Saxons were the hunters, they used the Old English names for animals. But the upper-class French saw these animals only at mealtimes. So, they used the French word to describe the prepared dishes. Today, modern English speakers — regardless of social class — have come to use both.
因为下层的盎格鲁撒克逊人是猎人,他们采用了动物的旧英文名。但是上层的法国人只在餐桌上看到这些动物,所以他们使用法语单词来形容这些菜肴。今天,说英语的人士无论阶层都开始使用这两种名称。

The words "deer" and "venison," however, are a bit more complicated.
然而,deer和venison这两个单词有点复杂。

Etymology Online says "venison" comes from an Old French word from the 1300s (venesoun) meaning "'meat of large game,' especially deer or boar." And that Old French word comes from a Latin word (venation) meaning "a hunt, hunting, or the chase."
词汇在线网站表示,venison出自于13世纪的一个古老的法语单词venesoun,意思是大型猎物的肉,尤其是鹿或野猪。那个古老的法语单词来自于拉丁语venation,意思是打猎、狩猎或追捕。

Following the Norman Conquest of 1066, any hunted animal was called venison after it was killed. And probably because deer were killed more than any other animal, "venison" came to mean "deer meat."
随着1066年诺曼人征服英国,任何猎物被杀死之后都叫做venison。可能是因为杀鹿比较多,venison就变成了鹿肉。

The words "chicken" and "fish" remain largely unchanged.
Chicken和fish这两个单词大体上保持不变。

However, sometimes we use the word "poultry" when talking about buying a chicken, turkey, or other similar bird to eat. For example, a grocery store may have a place called "the poultry section."
然而,我们有时候在谈到购买鸡肉、火鸡肉或其它类似的禽类食物时,会用到poultry(禽肉)这个单词。例如,食杂店可能会有家禽区。

But we don't use "poultry" when we order chicken or turkey at a restaurant, or serve it at a meal. We simply say "chicken" or "turkey."
但是我们在餐厅点鸡肉或火鸡肉时不使用poultry(禽肉)这个单词。我们就直接说鸡肉或火鸡肉。

For example, if I want to order my favorite dish, which is popular in the southern part of the United States, I will say, "I'll have the chicken and waffles, please." I would never order "poultry and waffles."
例如,如果我想要点一道我喜欢的菜,这道菜在美国南部非常受欢迎,我就会说:“请给我来点鸡肉和华夫饼。”我绝对不会点“禽肉和华夫饼。”

Lesser common birds, such as quail and pheasant, simply go by their own names.
一些不太常见的禽类,例如鹌鹑和野鸡就直接使用它们自己的名字。

What about fish?
那么鱼呢?

The French word for "fish" is "poisson." Some word experts suspect that "poisson" is too close to the English word "poison" to become a common food word.
鱼的法语单词是poisson。有些词汇专家怀疑poisson跟英语单词poison(毒药)太接近, 无法成为一种常见的食物词汇。

After all, even the food-rich culture of France cannot overcome the fact that eating poison might kill you or at least make you sick. As a result, anything that even sounds like "poison" will probably be an unpopular choice at mealtimes.
毕竟,即使法国富含美食的文化也无法克服服毒可能会致死或致病这一事实。因此,任何听起来像poison(毒药)的东西都不可能成为进餐时间一个受欢迎的选择。

And that bring us to the end of another Words and Their Stories.
以上就是本期词汇掌故节目的全部内容。

In your language, do the words for animals change when you eat them? Let us know in the Comments Section!
在你的语言中,动物词汇在食用时变了吗?请在评论区告诉我们。

Thanks for joining us. I'm Anna Matteo.
感谢收听这期节目,我是安娜·马特奥。(51VOA.COM原创翻译,禁止转载,违者必究!)