1.underneath ad.在下面 prep.在...的下面
例句：The boat passed underneath the bridge.
2.permit vt.允许, 容许, 可能, 使放手做 vi.容许, 给以机会, 提供可能
例句：They absolutely will not permit you to photograph any of the art work in the museum.
3.estimate v.估计, 评价, 判断
例句：Can you estimate the value of the painting?
4.mysterious a.神秘的, 难解的, 不可思议的
例句：This science fiction novel tells us a mysterious story.
5.claim vi.提出要求, 主张, 断言
例句：In such a case, the law permits you to claim damages for various items from the defendant.
6.native a.本国的, 与生俱来的, 自然的
例句：The native flora of Australia is the most varied and diverse in the world.
7.exchange vt.交换, 交易, 兑换
例句：The shopkeeper refused my request to exchange the shirt.
例句：Building has stopped while the dispute is being resolved.
9.vital a.生命的, 重要的, 充满活力的, 生死攸关的, 致命的
10.supervisor n.管理者, 监督者, 指导者, 视导员
例句：He finally finished the extremely difficult experiment, and won honor for his supervisor.
1.There are always exciting discoveries being made in this huge natural laboratory.
例句：The young scientist make some important discovery in aids research.
2.For example, scientists recently discovered a group of small organisms that appear to have lived for millions of years under the ice.
例句：Be careful of people who are never what they appear to be.
3.JILL MIKUCKI: "We have a lot to learn from the microbes that survive in these kinds of environments and have adapted to these cold, low-energy systems. They're very efficient."
例句：Children adapt to a new environment more easily than adults.
4.He says this is a very huge increase compared to what has happened in the past.
例句：The risk is as nothing compared to the gain.
5.Sharing Antarctica for science makes sense.
例句：It doesn't make sense to buy that expensive coat when these cheaper ones are just as good.
6.Research stations are taking steps to protect the environment.
例句：We mustn't fail to take steps against such diseases.
1.Scientists say the thinning ozone layer over the South Pole makes climate change take place more quickly than in other areas of the world.
语法分析：make是使役动词。最常见的使役动词有：make, have, leave。 他们都表示“使得……”，后面都可接宾语+宾语补足语的结构或从句。
2.ANTOINCE GUICHARD: "It is so expensive that if you don't help each other, usually you just don't manage. And now with Antarctic science being really a global science and part of understanding how the world works, it is becoming really vital that everybody works together."
it is becoming really vital that everybody works together.it是形式主语，真正的主语是everybody works together。使用形式主语可以避免句子看上去头重脚轻。