Three times a week, a group of smallholder farmers work together in a community field in Kirolirwe, a village in North Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Recently, the group prepared the soil before planting potatoes.

    "Let's go!" shouted the team leader. They encouraged each another to work harder.

    Nearly 200,000 displaced persons fled to camps in the Democratic Republic of the Congo because of violence in the east. Most people there say land disputes are one of the root causes of the area's conflicts.

    So recently, large landowners have been asked to free up more of their land to individual farmers interested in cultivating crops.

    Is this a solution to the land problem?

    An organization called FOPAC is teaching this group better farming methods like sowing improved seeds in straight line furrows. It is also showing the farmers how to remove grass instead of burying it, and to use animal waste as fertilizer.

    Mumbere Makuke works for FOPAC as a farming adviser.
    Mumbere Makuke在FOPAC组织担任农业顾问。

    He says the surrounding hills are owned by Olive Lembe, the wife of Joseph Kabila. Kabila is the president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    他说,周围丘陵的所有人是Olive Lembe,也就是刚果民主共和国总统约瑟夫·卡比拉(Joseph Kabila)的妻子。

    Much of the land once was cultivated. Mumbere Makuke says, the person Olive Lembe bought the property from last year stopped planting crops. Now, the land is mainly grassland.
    这些土地大部分曾经是耕地。Mumbere Makuke表示,卖给Olive Lembe土地的那个人去年停止了种植农作物。现在这片土地主要是草原。

    Lembe is now urging smallholders to grow crops on some of her land, which she has renamed Hope Farm. Many local people have trouble gaining use of the land. Ranchers bought much land in the area, often on dubious terms.

    Hope Farm requires farmers to make payments for use of the land, and payments have risen sharply in recent years.

    Mumbere Makuke says the usual rental payment in this area for one hectare is $200 for a season of four months. Many people rent smaller fields of about 400 square meters for $10 a season.
    Mumbere Makuke表示,该地区一公顷土地的日常租金是200美元每四个月。许多人用10美元每四个月的价格租用大约400平方米的小块土地。

    FOPAC tries to avoid conflict with ranchers whose animals often eat farmers' crops.

    He says "We decided to dig ditches around the fields to stop cattle from getting across."

    Reporter Nick Long says the farmers he spoke with seemed happy with the new farming techniques. But there is little manure available for their own fields. Also, improved potato seeds cost $1,600 for the two tons needed to plant one hectare.
    记者尼克·朗(Nick Long)表示,他采访过的农民似乎对这项新的务农技术非常满意。但是能用于土地的粪便也少了。此外,种植一公顷土地所需的两吨良种马铃薯种子需要花费1600美元。

    That is a lot of money for many farmers. Josaphat Musansa is an agricultural researcher. He says many farmers are not wealthy enough to pay rent, let alone buy tons of improved seeds.
    这对许多农民来说是一笔大钱。Josaphat Musansa 是一名农业研究员。他说,许多农民不够钱交租金,更别说买成吨的良种种子。

    He says those farmers can use land if they give a share of their harvest, often 20 percent, to the landowner or manager. But as improved techniques take hold, some landowners may not be satisfied with a 20 percent share of what is likely to be a poor harvest.

    Unless the government introduces policies to help smallholder farmers, they will have less and less land to use in this area. Smallholders risk becoming landless laborers as people with more money outbid them for access to land.

    I'm Mario Ritter.