Washington, 1789

    The first U.S. president, George Washington, was inaugurated in New York City. At the time, New York was the temporary capital of the country.
    美国第一任总统乔治·华盛顿(George Washington)是在纽约市就职,当时纽约是美国的临时首都。

    Because Americans had never had a president before, George Washington had to wait a week before lawmakers could agree on what an inauguration ceremony should look like.

    Finally, on April 30, the president- and vice president-to-be, along with other lawmakers, gathered at the senate building. They walked to the balcony and waved at the crowd.

    Then, a judge asked Washington to swear to "faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States." Those are the words the U.S. Constitution requires.

    The judge wanted Washington to swear on a Bible. But at the last minute, the judge realized he did not have one. A messenger had to find and borrow one quickly.

    After the oath, Washington read a speech to the senators. One of those senators described the scene in his diary. William Maclay wrote that Washington appeared nervous and uncomfortable. Washington trembled and had difficulty reading his speech.
    华盛顿在宣誓后向参议员们发表了演讲。其中一名参议员在他的日记中描述了这一场景。威廉·麦克雷(William Maclay)写道,华盛顿似乎很紧张,他浑身颤抖着,磕磕巴巴地念着演讲稿。

    The ceremony was short, sweet, and – according to Maclay – awkward.

    Jefferson, 1801

    Thomas Jefferson, the third president, had an inauguration that was reportedly even simpler. He walked to the ceremony instead being driven in a carriage, as the first two presidents had done.
    据说第三任总统托马斯·杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)的就职典礼非常简单。他走进了典礼现场,而不是像前两任总统一样乘坐马车。

    When Jefferson arrived at the Capitol, a large crowd met him. The president-elect had prepared a speech. But when Jefferson gave it, his voice was so soft that few people heard him.

    Today, Jefferson's first inaugural speech is well-known among Americans. It is famous for trying to ease the ugly dispute between political parties during the campaign.

    But apparently the bitter taste of the election remained. Jefferson's rival in the election – former president John Adams – did not attend the inauguration. In the dark hours just before the ceremony, Adams packed his bags, quit the White House, and took a coach back to Boston.
    但是显然选举的苦涩尚存,杰斐逊的竞选对手--前总统约翰·亚当斯(John Adams)没有参加这次就职典礼。在典礼开始前的暗淡时刻,亚当斯收拾好行李离开白宫,坐车回到了波士顿。

    William Henry Harrison, 1841

    No history of presidential inaugurations would be complete without noting William Henry Harrison, the country's ninth president.
    如果不提到美国第九任总统威廉·亨利·哈里森(William Henry Harrison),总统就职典礼的历史就不是完整的。

    At 68, Harrison was the oldest person to take office at the time. On his Inauguration Day, he reportedly wanted to show that he was strong enough to serve as president by delivering a very, very long speech. It was a cold day, and Harrison did not wear a coat or hat.

    One month later, Harrison died – the first president to die in office. His doctor recorded that Harrison died of pneumonia. The usual story is that his long speech killed him.

    But researchers reviewed Harrison's case and in 2014 proposed a different reason for his death. Jane McHugh and Philip Mackowiak say Harrison did not get sick until three weeks after his inauguration. And he complained of being tired and anxious, not of pain in his lungs.
    但是研究人员重新审查了哈里森的病例,并在2014年提出了一种不同的死因。简·麦休(Jane McHugh)和菲利普·马科维亚克(Philip Mackowiak)表示,哈里森直到就职典礼三个星期之后才生病。他抱怨非常疲倦和焦虑,没说肺部疼痛。

    The researchers point out that, at the time, Washington, DC did not have a good sewer system. Human waste "simply flowed onto public grounds a short distance from the White House," they wrote in the New York Times.

    Some of the bacteria probably entered the president's pipes – so to speak. The researchers conclude that Harrison probably died from drinking dirty water.

    Calvin Coolidge, 1923

    Not all presidents have memorable inaugurations. But the inauguration of Calvin Coolidge, the 30th president, is notable for being the least memorable.
    并不是所有总统都有令人难忘的就职典礼。但是第30任总统卡尔文·柯立芝(Calvin Coolidge)的就职典礼就以难忘而闻名。

    In August of 1923, Coolidge was the vice president. He did not have many duties and went on vacation at his family's house in Vermont.

    In the middle of the night, his father woke him up with a telegram. It said that the president, Warren Harding, had died. Coolidge was now president.
    他的父亲半夜拿着一份电报叫醒了他。电报称总统沃伦·哈丁(Warren Harding)去世了,柯立芝当即成为了总统。

    Coolidge wrote in his diary that his first act was to stop and pray. Then he found the text of the inaugural oath from the Constitution. He gave it to his father. Mr. Coolidge Senior administered the oath in the family's living room, by the light of a kerosene lamp.
    51VOA注:Senior加在名字后,是指父子中的父亲。例如老布什Bush Senior。

    Within half an hour, the new president was back in bed.

    Lyndon Johnson, 1963

    In contrast, most Americans can call to mind the dramatic, emotional inauguration of Lyndon Johnson, the 36th president, an hour and a half after John F. Kennedy's death.
    相比之下,大多数美国人都能记得第36任总统林登·约翰逊(Lyndon Johnson)突如其来、情绪化的就职典礼。这次典礼发生在约翰·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)去世一个半小时之后。

    The event is captured in an iconic image of Johnson on the president's plane, Air Force One. Johnson is raising his hand as he takes the oath of office. His wife is on one side. Jackie Kennedy, the former president's widow, stands at his other.
    约翰逊在空军一号上的这一经典画面被捕捉了下来。约翰逊宣誓就职时举起了手。他的妻子站在一边,另一边是前总统遗孀杰基·肯尼迪(Jackie Kennedy)。

    The judge administering the oath is also a woman – she is the first and only female judge to swear in a U.S. president.

    The image is famous because it shows the shock on Mrs. Kennedy's face. She still has on the suit she was wearing when her husband was shot.

    The image also provided proof to the American people that a new president had been sworn in. It promised that even in moments of chaos, the U.S. government continued.

    And, finally, inaugurations gone wrong

    But that is not to say that the U.S. government always operates smoothly. Many inaugurations go wrong.

    After Andrew Jackson's inauguration in 1829, supporters at the White House were so eager to shake the new president's hand that they almost crushed him against a wall. Jackson had to leave his own party by escaping out a window.

    In 1865, another Andrew, Andrew Johnson, delivered his vice presidential speech drunk. In his defense, he was sick; he had been using whiskey as medicine.
    1865年,另一位安德鲁先生,安德鲁·约翰逊(Andrew Johnson)醉意醺醺地发表了他的副总统讲话。他辩护称他生病了,不得不以威士忌作为药物。

    Ulysses S. Grant in 1873 wanted live birds at his inaugural ball. Unfortunately, the day was very cold. The birds froze to death.
    尤利西斯·格兰特(Ulysses S. Grant)想要在他的就职舞会上弄很多活鸟。但不幸的是,这天非常冷,这些鸟都冻死了。

    Similarly, in 1973, Richard Nixon aimed to clear pigeons from the path of the inaugural parade by spraying chemicals. He succeeded … sort of. On Inauguration Day, the crowd had to step over the bodies of the dead birds all along Pennsylvania Avenue.
    同样,在1973年,理查德·尼克松(Richard Nixon)意图通过喷洒化学药品清除就职游行路线上的鸽子。他差不多算是成功了。在就职典礼日,人群不得不跨过宾夕法尼亚大道一路上的死鸟尸体行进。

    I'm Kelly Jean Kelly.

    And I'm Anne Ball.