Now, the VOA Learning English program Words and Their Stories.

    On this program we discuss the meaning and usage of common expressions in American English.

    The world can be a cold, cold place.

    Sometimes the environment is figuratively cold, meaning not cold in temperature but rather cold in feeling. People can be mean. Work can be thankless. Living conditions can be hard.

    And sometimes the world is literally cold.

    Temperatures drop. Snow falls from the clouds and sticks to the ground. Ice covers sidewalks and roads. Bitterly cold wind stings your face.

    Whether your world feels literally or figuratively cold, our program today will give you the language to find comfort and warmth!

    First, let's talk about our first protection against the cold -- clothing.

    When the weather is cold, it is important to wear the right clothing. Warm clothes -- a good coat, hat, scarf, and gloves -- can make all the difference. In fact, I've read that Swedish people have this expression: "There is no bad weather only bad clothing."

    So, when it's cold outside, you need to bundle up! This phrasal verb means to dress warmly. Being underdressed in cold weather can be unpleasant or even dangerous.
    所有,当外面很冷的时候,你需要把自己包裹起来(bundle up),这个短语动词的意思是指穿戴暖和。在寒冷天气里衣着单薄可能会不舒服甚至很危险。

    Parents often tell children to bundle up as advice. "Make sure to bundle up! It's really cold today." Babies bundled up in soft blankets are warm, protected and very cute!

    After a day out in the cold world, it feels good to come home and change out of your day clothes. Putting on something comfortable, like pajamas, can warm both the body and soul.

    When we use "comfortable" to describe things like clothing or furniture, we sometimes shorten it to just comfy. For example, "This sweater is so comfy!" or "Your couch is very comfy."

    Now, a simple pleasure on a cold, winter day is to sit close to a warm fire. If you are lucky enough to be sitting by a fire, wearing comfy clothes, and drinking a cup of hot chocolate, you could say comfy-cozy, toasty-roasty. This sounds like part of a children's song, but it is just a way of saying you are warm and comfortable.
    寒冷冬天里最简单的快乐就是围坐在温暖的炉火旁。如果你有幸能够坐在炉火旁,穿着舒适的衣服,喝着巧克力热饮,你就可以说“comfy-cozy, toasty-roasty。”这句话听起来就像是儿歌,但是它只是表达温暖舒适的一种方式。

    If you're really lucky, you have someone to cozy up with. To cozy up to someone means to get physically close to them. Another word for this is to snuggle. After a bad day, it can be warm and comforting to cozy up with a husband or wife, boyfriend or girlfriend, or even your loyal dog or cat.
    如果你确实幸运,你会有一个人可以相互依偎。To cozy up to someone意思是相互依偎着。另一个类似单词就是snuggle。在经历糟糕的一天之后,依偎着丈夫或妻子、男(女)朋友甚至是一只忠诚的猫狗都会感觉非常温暖舒适。

    But this expression has another meaning.

    To cozy up to someone can mean to start a friendship with someone or simply be nice to them in an attempt to get something. In order to get something you want, you are nice and extra friendly.
    To cozy up to someone还可能意味着与某人开始友谊,或者就只是为了得到什么东西而去亲近别人。为了得到你想要的东西,你变得格外友好。

    Let's hear it used in this example.

    A: Matthew has been so nice to me recently. It's strange. I didn't think he liked me.

    B: He heard that you will be deciding who goes overseas to work on that big project. So, he's cozying up to you.

    A: Oh. That explains the box of chocolates he gave me!

    So, people can cozy up to others to try to get something they want but so can industries. You may hear "cozy up" when talking about the attempt to influence government officials. For example, to get favorable laws passed, lobbyists may cozy up to lawmakers.
    所以,人们奉承别人是为了得到他们想要得到的东西,在各个行业里都是这样。当提到试图影响政府官员时,你可能会听到cozy up这个词。例如,为了通过有利的法律,说客们可能会去游说议员。

    Another way we say this is to get cozy (with someone.) You might hear it used this way. "I see you've been getting cozy with the coach lately. Worried about your position on the team, are you?"
    我们另一种说法是get cozy with someone。你可能听过这种用法。“我看到你最近一直在拍教练的马屁,你担心自己在球队中的位置,是吗?”

    Now, even though big business and lawmakers often cozy up with each other, we would not describe either of them as warm-and-fuzzy. (Sometimes this word combination is hyphenated. Sometimes it is not.)

    Something that feels really good after escaping the cold is something warm-and-fuzzy. Fuzzy describes something very soft to the touch – like a puppy or a kitten.

    So, warm-and-fuzzy clothing can comfort you after dealing with literal cold. But something warm-and-fuzzy can also protect you against figurative cold. For example, a movie can be warm-and-fuzzy. This means it makes you feel good when you watch it.

    However, we also use this expression to describe someone or something that is really cold or unfeeling. As we said earlier, lobbyists and lawmakers usually aren't warm-and-fuzzy.

    Let's hear how it is used in another example:

    A: "Your roommate sure isn't the warm and fuzzy type, is she?"

    B: "No, she's not. Last week when I had a cold, she told me not to sneeze so loudly."

    A: "Now, that's cold."

    After a bad day -- either a cold or hot one -- many of us just want to get home and escape.

    My perfect way to escape would be change into my comfy-cozy pajamas, sink into my comfy couch and curl up in front of a fire to watch a warm-and-fuzzy movie.

    "To curl up" means to make your body into the shape of a ball to keep warm, as a kitten would. Is there anything cuter than a fuzzy, baby animal curling up by its mother? I don't think so.
    To curl up是指让身体缩成一团保暖,就像小猫一样。有什么比一只毛绒绒的小动物蜷缩在它妈妈的怀抱里更可爱呢?我觉得没有。

    To escape a cold world, you may want to curl up with a cup of hot tea and our next Words and Their Stories.

    I'm Anna Matteo.