国际红十字会称《日内瓦公约》仍具现实意义

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And events marking the 70th anniversary of the 1949 Geneva Conventions are underway, the International Committee of the Red Cross says these four landmark treaties delineating the law of war are as relevant today as they were when they came into force August 12, 1949. Lisa Schlein reports for VOA, from ICRC headquarters in GENEVA.
《1949年日内瓦公约》70周年纪念活动正在进行当中。国际红十字会表示,这4条具有里程碑意义的公约划定了战争法。时至今日,它仍然跟1949年8月12日生效之际具有同样的现实意义。美国之音的丽莎· 施莱茵从国际红十字会日内瓦总部发来报道。

The 1949 Geneva Conventions grew out of the horrors of World War II. It took only four months for the four treaties, which are universally ratified, to come into force. The treaties contain the core elements of the International Humanitarian Law, the law of war, which aims to reduce suffering in armed conflict.
《1949年日内瓦公约》源于二战的恐怖。现在得到全球普遍认可的这4条公约当时只花了4个月时间就正式生效。这些公约载有国际人道主义法(即战争法)的核心要素,目的是减少武装冲突中的苦难。

The law requires all parties to a conflict to abide by provisions that include a prohibition against torture, appropriate treatment of civilians, caring for the wounded on the battlefield, and the dignified treatment of the remains of the dead.
该法要求冲突各方遵守相关规定,包括禁止酷刑、适当对待平民、照顾战场伤员,以及有尊严的处理遗骸。

ICRC Director of International Law and Policy, Helen Durham, recognizes the law of war is not always followed, but she notes when they work, they have an impact. She says ICRC delegates in the field see these laws in action every day.
国际红十字会国际法与政策司司长海伦·达勒姆承认这项战争法并不总是能得到遵守,但她指出,当该法起效时,就能产生影响。她说,国际红十字会的战地代表每天都能看到这些法律在起作用。

"We see, for example, the capacity for us to get fresh water to six million Syrian. This is the law of war in action. We see every time a wounded combatant passes a checkpoint to get access to medical assistance, it is the laws or war in action," she says.
她说:“例如我们看到,我们能够向600万叙利亚人提供淡水。这就是战争法在起作用。我们看到,每次伤兵通过检查站获取医疗援助,这就是战争法在起作用。”

At the same time, Durham acknowledges the many challenges to the Conventions posed by new technologies. She says issues such as cyber warfare, artificial intelligence, autonomous weapons and the changing nature of conflict present new threats.
与此同时,达勒姆认识到新技术给《日内瓦公约》提出了许多挑战。她说,例如网络战、人工智能、自主武器以及不断变化的冲突本质都带来新的威胁。

When the Conventions were crafted 70 years ago, she says international wars among belligerent states dominated. Now, most wars are internal, civil conflicts. She tells VOA as far back as the 1970s, a survey found a dramatic increase in civilian casualties as a consequence of this change.
她说,70年前起草《日内瓦公约》时,各交战国之间的国际战争占主导地位。现在,大多数战争是国家内部冲突。她对美国之音表示,早在上世纪70年代就有调查发现,平民伤亡人数急剧上升,这就是这种变化的后果。

"In World War I, I think the statistics are one out of nine people killed was a civilian. In World War II, it was around 50-50. And, then when you looked at the Vietnam and other wars of decolonization, the statistics inversed where up to 90 percent of casualties during conflict were civilians…To date, that continues. So, civilians are very often the major casualties," she says.
她说:“我认为一战的统计数据是每9名遇难者中有1人是平民。二战大致是五五开。然后当我们审视越南和其它去殖民化战争时,统计数据反了过来,冲突期间9成死伤者是平民。截至目前,这种情况还在继续。因此,平民往往是主要的伤亡者。”"

Durham says an area of major concern for the ICRC is the treatment of detainees. She says clear rules governing the care of prisoners of war are laid out in the Conventions. However, these frequently are not enforced in the context of civil wars where non-state actors are involved.
达勒姆表示,国际红十字会尤为关注战俘待遇。她说,公约中列出了关于照顾战俘的明确规定。但是,在涉及到非国家行为者的内战中,这些规定往往不会得到执行。

She says this is one area where international law must evolve to make the laws of war more relevant to present day existing reality.
她说,这是国际法必须推进领域,以使战争法更加符合当今现实。

Lisa Schlein, for VOANEWS, GENEVA.
美国之音新闻节目的施莱茵从日内瓦为你报道。(未经51VOA.COM授权请勿转载!)