Around the year 2000, a Bangladeshi immigrant named Shaker Sadeak left New York City.
    2000年左右,一位名为Shaker Sadeak的孟加拉国移民离开了纽约市。

    Sadeak moved west to the American state of Michigan. He told VOA that Michigan gave him the chance to hold a job while going to school.

    In 2007, he opened his own retail store in Hamtramck, Michigan -- a town with many immigrants from Bangladesh. The store, specializing in cloth, is next to Bengali restaurants and food stores. His business has grown over the years.

    This past summer, new and established stores were replacing empty spaces along Conant Street, the main commercial street in Hamtramck.

    Sadeak told VOA "Back in 2000, you used to see one car in two minutes. Now we have thousands of cars driving on the streets. All the immigrants came into this town and rebuilt the whole thing," he said.

    In old industrial areas across the United States, immigration is the basis for economic growth, says Steve Tobocman, Executive Director of Global Detroit. His nonprofit group works to bring international investment and business to southeast Michigan.
    Global Detroit组织执行董事长斯蒂夫·托博曼(Steve Tobocman)表示,在美国各地的老工业区,移民是经济增长的基础。这家非营利组织致力于将国际投资和业务带到密歇根州东南部。

    Tobocman told VOA that the immigration issues are real and important to the community.

    "They have a real impact on family budgets, and jobs, and incomes," he said.

    Damage to America's brand

    New research shows that after the 2008 Great Recession, a growth in Detroit's immigrant population helped to fight population decline and energize the economy. Global Detroit reported the findings.
    新的研究表明,在208年大衰退之后,底特律移民人口的增长有对于对抗人口减少和振兴经济。Global Detroit组织报告了这一调查结果。

    Tobocman said that since the beginning of Donald Trump's presidency, anti-immigrant language and policies have been costly for Michigan.

    "We have done some damage to America's brand as the world's most welcoming economy, most innovative economy, and a place where anybody can come and contribute to our growth and prosperity and live the American Dream," he said.

    Trump's top advisor for policy, Stephen Miller, told reporters in August that the president's policies will prevent an increase in low-wage labor and protect American workers.
    川普高级政策顾问斯蒂芬·米勒(Stephen Miller)8月份对记者表示,川普总统的政策将会防止廉价劳动力增长并保护美国工人。

    Miller believes that unskilled immigrants hurt the economy, and are partly to blame for unemployment in the country.

    The U.S. Labor Department reported in early September that the jobless rate was 4.4 percent.

    Comparing Michigan with nine other industrial states, Global Detroit estimated the economic loss that resulted from decreases in international travel and international students. The study also considered effects from Trump's cancellation of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program and losses in agricultural production.
    Global Detroit组织将密歇根州与其它九个工业州相比,估算出了国际旅游和国际学生减少所造成的损失。这项研究还考虑到了川普取消暂缓遣返童年抵达者计划(DACA)和农业生产损失的影响。

    The group predicted a combined $1.157 billion in yearly losses in statewide economic activity. It estimated $418 million of that amount coming from the announced cancellation of DACA.

    About $261 million in losses were tied to an estimated 16 percent drop in foreign visitors to the United States.

    Weighing costs and benefits

    In areas of the U.S. where population is falling, immigrants are "part of what is keeping those communities vibrant and growing," says Kim Rueben, a Senior Fellow at the Urban Institute.
    城市研究所高级研究员金姆·鲁本(Kim Rueben)表示,在美国人口下降的地区,移民是“维持这些社区活力和增长的部分原因。”

    Rueben was a member of the National Academy of Sciences panel that wrote a report on the effect of immigration on American workers and economic growth. The group reported its findings in 2016.

    Rueben noted that there are costs to state and local governments, such as educating the children of immigrants. But, she said, those same children become adults who "end up paying the most in taxes and using the least in services."

    Any decision to cut immigration numbers and the overturning of DACA will hurt the economy, Reuben said.

    She noted that the children of lower-wage, first generation immigrants have shown an ability to exceed education level expectations.

    A recent opinion study found that 38 percent of voting Americans approve of President Trump's immigration policies, while 59 percent disapprove. The Quinnipiac University poll was released last month.

    I'm Bryan Lynn. And I'm Alice Bryant.