"Please explain how to use ‘gonna.'" – Valens, Rwanda
You probably hear native English speakers on television and in movies using reduced forms of words all the time. Examples are the terms gonna, gotta, wanna, shoulda and oughta.
In spoken English, we often put words together. In the process, we also leave out some letters and the vowel sounds change a little. So the expression "going to" becomes "gonna."
Reduced forms are informal speech
Here are a few examples of reduced forms in formal and informal speech:
Formal: What are you going to do tonight? Do you want to see a movie?
Informal: Whatcha gonna do tonight? Wanna see a movie?
Formal: Sorry, but I've got to do my homework. You ought to do yours, too.
Informal: Sorry, but I gotta do my homework. You oughta do yours, too.
Note that the informal examples are how many people normally speak. It would sound very formal and, as a result, strange to pronounce every sound of every word. This shortening of sounds happens in many languages.
Use reduced forms in speech, not in writing
In English, you may not see the short forms in writing because writers are usually more careful to spell each word. But when a writer wants to show how a person is really speaking, these short forms can appear in books and, more commonly, in popular culture.
Compare these examples from popular movies. The first is the reduced form of "Get out of there!"
比较一下流行电影中的这些例子，首先是“Get out of there”的简化形式。
1 (phone rings. Tom Cruise answers) Cruise: Hello. Voice: Get outta there! They know. Get out!
2 Woman: Get outta there.
3 Man: Don't talk to him. Get outta there!
Here are examples of "It's going to blow." [explode]
以下是“It's going to blow”（爆炸）的一下例子。
1 Ironman: Got a nuke comin' in. It's gonna blow in less than a minute.
2 Boy: But wait, but the plane - it's gonna blow up, it's gonna blow up!
Sometimes, people have little time to tell others about their exact problem, so they use reduced form words. But people in everyday life also use reduced forms to seem friendly.
It's fine to use terms like these when you are speaking with friends. It's better not to use them in English class or a formal situation, like an office.
Remember that you should not write the reduced forms, except in informal communication to friends or family.
That's Ask a Teacher for this week. So I've gotta get outta here.
I'm Jill Robbins.